Ephemeris of January 15

On January 15, 2001, Wikipedia was born, a free encyclopedia published on the Internet created by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. OTHER ANNOUNCEMENTS 1759.- The British Museum opens its doors in London. 1796.- The supposed mortal remains of Christopher Columbus, coming from Santo Domingo, disembark in Havana. 1859.- A revolution breaks out in Haiti that dethrones Emperor Faustino I. 1875.- Military coup d’état in Uruguay. José Ellauri cedes executive power to Pedro Varela. 1881.- Battle of Miraflores, during the Pacific War, between the Chilean and Peruvian armies, which gives victory to the former, opening the doors of Lima to them. 1892.- James Naismith publishes the rules of basketball. 1919.- Murder in Berlin of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, founders of the German Communist Party and main leaders of the Spartacist insurrection in the German capital. – Molasses disaster: in Boston, United States, the explosion of a large molasses tank causes a flood that leaves 21 dead and 150 injured. 1934.- An earthquake of magnitude 8 shakes Nepal and the Indian state of Bihar causing some 12,000 deaths. 1941.- Alfonso XIII abdicates in Rome his rights to the Spanish throne in favor of his son Prince Don Juan, Count of Barcelona. 1943.- Inauguration of the Pentagon, headquarters of the US Department of Defense, near Washington. 1944.- The Argentine city of San Juan is destroyed by an earthquake. 1962.- The Derveni papyrus, the oldest preserved manuscript in Europe, is found in Greece. 1967.- The first Super Bowl is played, the most important event in American football. The Green Bay Packers beat the Kansas City Chiefs 35-10. 1971.- Inauguration of the great Aswan dam on the Nile River. 1985.- Tancredo Neves is appointed President of Brazil by the Electoral College, although he dies before taking office. 1992.- The European Community recognizes the independence of Croatia and Slovenia, which supposes the dismemberment of Yugoslavia as a unitary State for European purposes. 1996.- Mario Vargas Llosa takes possession of the “L” chair of the Royal Spanish Academy. – The prime minister of Greece, the socialist Andreas Papandreou, resigns as a result of a serious respiratory illness. 2000.- Serbian paramilitary leader Zeljko Raznatovic, “Arkan”, accused of war crimes, is assassinated in Belgrade. 2001.- Wikipedia is born, a free encyclopedia published on the Internet created by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. 2004.- NASA’s “Spirit” robot begins exploring Mars. 2005.- First sentence for the mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners in the Abu Ghraib prison: a Texas court sentences Charles Graner to ten years in prison and expulsion from the Army. 2006.- Michelle Bachelet wins the elections in Chile and becomes the first woman to become President. 2007.- Two collaborators of Saddam Hussein executed in Baghdad: his half-brother, Barzán al Tikriti, and Judge Awad al Bandar. 2009.- The Israeli Army kills the Hamas Interior Minister, Said Siam, in the Gaza Strip. – Landing of an Airbus 320 plane in the Hudson River, in New York, piloted by Chesley Sullenberger. All 155 travelers are saved. 2013.- More than 80 dead in an attack against the Syrian university of Aleppo. 2019.- The British Parliament rejects the agreement with the EU on “Brexit” and the Labor Party presents a motion of censure against the Government. 2020.- The United States and China sign the first phase of a trade agreement. – The Russian government resigns en bloc after Putin announced changes to the Constitution. BIRTHS 1809.- Pierre Joseph Proudhon, French socialist philosopher. 1826.- Marie Pasteur, French scientist, collaborator of her husband, Louis Pasteur. 1888.- María Isabel Carvajal (Carmen Lyra), Costa Rican writer. 1896.- Víctor de la Serna, Spanish writer born in Chile. 1906.- Aristotle Onassis, shipowner and Greek billionaire. 1908.- Edward Teller, American physicist of Hungarian origin. 1918.- Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of Egypt (1956-1970). 1919.- Maurice Herzog, French mountaineer and politician. 1922.- Paul Casimir Marcinkus, American archbishop. 1926.- María Schell, Austrian actress of Swiss origin. 1927.- Armando Morales, Nicaraguan painter. 1929.- Martin Luther King, American black leader, defender of human rights. 1955.- Thierry Breton, French businessman and politician. 1969.- Raffaella Petrini, Italian nun, “number two” in the Vatican. 1975.- Mary Pierce, French tennis player. 1980.- David Muñoz (Dabiz Muñoz), Spanish chef. 1981.- “Pitbull” (Armando Christian Pérez), Cuban-American rapper singer. DEATHS 1597.- Juan de Herrera, Spanish architect, author of the El Escorial monastery. 1988.- Sean Mc Bride, Irish politician, Nobel Peace Prize winner in 1974. 1998.- Junior Wells, American blues musician. 2004.- Olivia Goldsmith, American writer. 2005.- Victoria de los Ángeles, Spanish soprano. 2006.- Sheikh Jaber al Ahmad al Sabah, emir of Kuwait. 2007.- Bo Yibo, historic leader of the Chinese Communist Party. 2009.- Tommy Muñiz, Puerto Rican actor and television producer. 2017.- Isidro Baldenegro, Mexican indigenous leader. 2018.- Dolores O’Riordan, Irish singer, leader of “The Cranberries”. – Edwin Hawkins, American gospel singer, famous for his song “Oh, Happy Day.” 2019.- Carol Channing, American actress and singer. 2021.- Vicente Cantatore, Argentine nationalized Chilean soccer player and coach. EFE doc/pi


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