On December 8, 2020, the launch of the coronavirus vaccination in the UK marked the start of a global campaign of historic magnitude, a race against time to tackle the coronavirus pandemic.
A year later, half of the world’s population received at least one dose of the vaccine. But while the rich countries are already injecting booster doses, the poorest have protected tiny percentages of their population.
This strident inequality is one of the main black points of this campaign, also dotted with controversies about side effects, although they are rare, and by protests against the obligation to vaccinate in some countries.
Next, a balance of one year of vaccination in the world, backed up in an AFP database.
– Every second –
The British were the first to launch a massive campaign, although countries such as Russia or China had already begun to vaccinate on a limited basis.
The UK mainly used then the AstraZeneca / Oxford vaccine, one of the twenty currently in circulation, all of which were developed in record time given that the new coronavirus was first detected in China at the end of 2019.
Subsequently, many developed countries began to vaccinate in December 2020, mostly with the messenger RNA vaccine from the Pfizer / BioNTech laboratory: the United States, Canada and the United Arab Emirates on December 14, Saudi Arabia on December 17, Israel on 19, the European Union on 27 …
A year later, more than half of the world’s population (55%) have received at least one dose, that is, more than 4.3 billion people. And at least 44% (3,400 million) have the complete guideline, according to an AFP balance based on official data.
In total, 8.1 billion doses have been administered worldwide. In addition to AstraZeneca and Pfizer, the other most widely used vaccines are those developed by the Americans Johnson & Johnson and Moderna, the Chinese Sinopharm and Sinovac, and the Russian Sputnik V.
– Poor countries lagging behind –
Although at least since June 2021, almost all the countries of the world have been inoculating, the rate is very slow in most poor countries, if not interrupted by lack of doses.
The Covax mechanism, promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) to guarantee equal access to vaccines, delivers its first shipment in late February in Ghana.
But rivaling countries willing to pay high prices for its supply, Covax has delivered no more than 591 million doses to 144 countries or territories, far from the 2 billion set as a target for 2021.
Currently, in low-income countries (as classified by the World Bank), only 9 doses were administered per 100 inhabitants. The global average is 104 per 100 inhabitants and in high-income countries it is 149 per 100.
Africa is the least protected continent, with 18 doses per 100 inhabitants. Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo are the least vaccinated countries, with 0.007% and 0.06% of the population respectively.
There are still two countries that have not started inoculation: Eritrea and North Korea.
– United Arab Emirates in first position –
Among the 50 most vaccinated countries, 39 are high-income, with the United Arab Emirates leading the way, with more than 89% of the population immunized.
Behind are Portugal (87%), Singapore (86%), Qatar (85%), Chile and Malta (84%), Cuba (81%), South Korea and Cambodia (80%), Spain and Seychelles (79 %) and Malaysia (78%).
Although they started with a very good vaccination rate thanks to privileged supplies, a year later countries such as the United Kingdom (68%), Israel (67%) or the United States (60%) are not among the most advanced.
– Booster dose and vaccines for minors –
High-income countries are also at the top of the 80 states that have started booster doses. These include almost every country in Europe, North America and the Gulf.
Also, most give doses to adolescents (12-17 years) and, some like the United States, Canada, Israel, Cuba, Emirates, Cambodia or Venezuela, to children as young as five or six years old.
In the European Union, Austria made progress in mid-November to the community drug agency that did not approve until the end of the month the administration of Pfizer vaccines to five-year-olds.
jah-cds / dbh / es